Evaluating COVID-19 Epidemiology, Clinical Outcomes and Neutrophil-To-Lymphocyte Ratio as a Prognosticator of Severity of the Disease

Neutrophil-To-Lymphocyte Ratio in COVID-19


  • Mizna Arif Pathology Department, Ameerudin Medical College/PGMI/ LGH Lahore
  • Sadia Farhad Department of Pathology, Bacha Khan Medical College, Mardan
  • Waqas Hussain Medicine Department, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi
  • Ghulam Mustafa Department of Information Technology, University of the Punjab, Gujranwala Campus
  • Rakesh Panjwani Medicine Department, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi
  • Sarah Arif Gomal Medical College, Medical Teaching Institute, Dera Ismail Khan
  • Sudhair Abbas Bangash Department of Pharmacy, Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar
  • Muhammad Ateeq Institute of Biological Sciences, Sarhad University of Science & Information Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan




NLR, biochemical tests, covid-19, Lahore


This study aimed to find out the public health perspective of COVID-19 and its associated clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we aimed to identify the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a prognostic biomarker for the COVID-19 severity. Method: This research was conducted in Hematology section, Pathology Department of Lahore General Hospital/ Ameerudin Medical College Lahore. A total of 1000 patients were enrolled in the study for nine months. A RT-PCR test of a nasopharyngeal swab from COVID-19 patients was comprised in this research with their informed consent. An EDTA vial containing peripheral blood was taken and sent directly to the hospital lab. For every patient; a detailed history and clinical examination were performed. Results: In this study, the average age of participants were 40 years; 61.30 percent (n=613) were between the ages of 20 and 45, and 38.70 percent (n=387) were between 45 and 88 yrs. The majority of participants (88%, n=880) were males .In total, 68% (n=680) of the patients did not have any pre-morbid conditions, while 32% (n=320) did. Diabetes mellitus was a premorbid condition for 13.7% of patients (n=137), hypertension for 5% (n=50), ischemic heart disease for 5.7% (n=57), chronic respiratory infection for 2.3% (n= 23), chronic renal disease for 4.3% (n=43), chronic hepatic for 1.2% (n=12). Eight hundred and forty patients (84%, n=840) presented with NLR <3.13 and one hundred and sixty patients (16%, n=160) presented with NLR >3.13 along with lymphopenia. More than half of patients with NLR > 3.13 were anticipated to progress serious illness. We prioritized patients based on stratification of NLR
according to their ages and guided their treatment decisions. Conclusion: In conclusion, NLR can be exploited as a predictor for ventilatory support andprotection. Patients with an NLR > 3.13 are at higher risk of mortality as well as requiring intensive care soon after receiving it.


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How to Cite

Arif, M. ., Farhad, S. ., Hussain, W. ., Mustafa, G. ., Panjwani, R. ., Arif, S. ., Bangash, S. A. ., & Ateeq, M. . (2022). Evaluating COVID-19 Epidemiology, Clinical Outcomes and Neutrophil-To-Lymphocyte Ratio as a Prognosticator of Severity of the Disease: Neutrophil-To-Lymphocyte Ratio in COVID-19. Pakistan BioMedical Journal, 5(4), 77–81. https://doi.org/10.54393/pbmj.v5i4.394



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