Pakistan BioMedical Journal <p>Title of Journal: <strong>Pakistan Biomedical Journal (ISSN Online: 2709-2798, Print: 2709-278X)</strong></p> <p>Frequency: <strong>Monthly</strong></p> <p>Affiliated with: <strong>Lahore Medical Research Center</strong></p> <p><strong>Website: (</strong><a href=""></a>)</p> <p>Published By: <strong>CrossLinks International Publishers (CLIP), Lahore, Pakistan</strong></p> <p><strong>Website: (</strong><a href=""></a>)</p> <p><strong>Address:</strong> Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p><strong>Description:</strong></p> <p><strong>Pakistan BioMedical Journal (PBMJ)</strong> is an Official Journal of "<strong>Lahore Medical Research Center LLP" (LMRC)</strong> and is being funded and supported by Lahore Medical Research Center LLP (LMRC). Pakistan Biomedical Journal (PBMJ) is an open access, double blind peer-reviewed international journal. </p> <p><strong>Aim &amp; Scope</strong></p> <p>The Pakistan BioMedical Journal (PBMJ) covers a diverse range of disciplines crucial to healthcare and academia. This includes Public Health, Clinical Sciences, Dentistry, Nursing, Medical/Health Professions Education, and Biological Sciences related to human health. By embracing such a wide spectrum of topics, PBMJ aims to serve as a comprehensive platform for the dissemination of research and knowledge, fostering interdisciplinary collaboration and advancements in understanding human health and well-being.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Accreditation:</strong></span></p> <p><strong>Approved by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for the year 2023-24</strong></p> <p><strong>Fee &amp; Subscription Charges</strong></p> <p>Article Processing Fee: <strong>NONE</strong></p> <p>Article Publication Fee (National) Rs 35000 / Article</p> <p>Article Publication Fee (International ) 200 USD / Article</p> <p>Printed Version ((Selected Articles on Authors Request): Rs 2500/per copy</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Annual Subscription for Printed Versions</strong></span></p> <p>For Institutes: Rs 20,000/ Annually</p> <p>Single Copy (Selected Articles): Rs 2500/-</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Waiver Policy</strong></span></p> <p>If an author has no funds to pay such charges, he may request for full or partial waiver of publication fees. The decision may however vary from case to case.</p> <p>We do not want charges to prevent the publication of worthy material.</p> <p><strong><u>Submissions</u></strong></p> <p><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">Submission are welcome and may be submitted here. </span><a style="background-color: #ffffff; font-size: 0.875rem;" href=""></a></p> CrossLinks International Publishers en-US Pakistan BioMedical Journal 2709-278X <p>This is an open-access journal and all the published articles / items are distributed under the terms of the <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. For comments <a href=""></a></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Ethical Literacy in Medical Education: A Comparative Study of Medical Ethics among Undergraduate Students in Peshawar, Pakistan <p>Medical ethics knowledge and practice by healthcare providers is an incredibly critical topic in today's highly advanced and demanding medical care. <strong>Objective:</strong> To assess the knowledge and attitude of undergraduate medical students regarding medical ethics, and to compare the results among the students of public and private medical colleges of Peshawar. <strong>Methods:</strong> Over the course of six months, 1203 undergraduate students from a variety of fields participated in an observational cross-sectional study. A standardized questionnaire about medical ethics knowledge, attitudes, and demographics was filled out by the participants. Descriptive statistics and the chi-square test were used in the analysis of the data using SPSS version 27.0 to look for differences between groups. <strong>Results:</strong> A total of 1203 undergraduate students were enrolled in the study; 60.2% of the participants were men and 39.6% were women. Of these, 66.9% have previously studied medical ethics. 2.1% of the participants had poor knowledge of medical ethics, 26.8% had average knowledge, and 71.1% had good knowledge. Furthermore, 76.2% of students thought that medical ethics ought to be taught in undergraduate programs. While 41.1% of respondents said that medical ethics were merely important to avoid legal issues, 42% of respondents believed that doctors may occasionally act unethically. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study concluded that students in the public and private sectors both possess an adequate amount of knowledge regarding medical ethics. Additionally, students in both fields demonstrate a positive attitude toward the application of medical ethics in the medical field</p> Khansa Khan Salman Zahir Marwa Shaukat Abdul Muqeet Ahmad Muhammad Abdullah Kabir Iqbal Syeda Romesa Sana Shumayel Ashraf Amber Ahmad Khattak Muhammad Nabeel Somia Mazhar Jamal Shah Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal 2024-05-31 2024-05-31 02 07 10.54393/pbmj.v7i05.1086 Audiology and Hearing Health in Islamabad and Rawalpindi: Awareness Perspective <p>There exists a literature gap on public awareness of audiologists and their services in Pakistan. The educated population’s awareness is of utmost concern as they are a knowledge resource for the masses especially the uneducated with low literacy. <strong>Objective:</strong> To assess the impact of public awareness on audiology and hearing health in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. <strong>Methods:</strong> This cross-sectional study was performed at Shifa International Hospital from February to June 2023. n= 377 participants were recruited using random sampling and assessed using a 15-item closed-ended questionnaire. <strong>Results:</strong> Regarding knowledge of the profession of audiology, (92.8%) never visited an audiologist and (58.1%) heard about an audiologist by word of mouth. (45.6%) considered important to get their hearing tested and (61.8%) thought that the hearing of adults can be tested. (34.2%) thought that ear infection causes hearing difficulties followed by noise (33.2%). Despite (97%) recognizing the importance of hearing tests, only (7.2%) consulted an audiologist. They had knowledge that ear infection and loud noise could lead to hearing loss and believed in keeping their ears clean with cotton buds. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>It was concluded the study reveals a lack of awareness regarding audiology as a profession, leading to a limited number of individuals seeking audiological services. While there is a general understanding of the importance of hearing testing and recognition of the causes of hearing loss, there is room for improvement in raising awareness about the specialized role of audiologists in addressing hearing-related issues.</p> Ghulam Saqulain Asma Pervaiz Laiba Qazafi Khadija Zahid Muhammad Abdul Sami Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal 2024-05-31 2024-05-31 08 13 10.54393/pbmj.v7i05.1087 Predictive Association between Perceived Social Support and Infertility-Related Stress in Married Couples in Pakistan <p>Infertility is indeed a global issue and has a profound impact on married couples, affecting various aspects of their relationship, emotional well-being, and quality of life. The WHO estimates that 10-15% of couples globally experience infertility, with rates varying across regions. <strong>Objective:</strong> To examine the predictive association between perceived social support (PSS) and infertility-related stress among married couples experiencing infertility.<strong> Methods: </strong>For this research, 50 married couples selected through purposive sampling from the Gynecology and Obstetrics departments of several hospitals and infertility clinics in Karachi, Pakistan with the age ranged between 20-40 years (X̄=32.3; SD= 3.12). Brief interviews of the participants were conducted, and Urdu versions of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Infertility-Related Stress Scale were administered. Data was analyzed through SPSS (V-25.0) using descriptive statistics, and regression analysis. <strong>Results: </strong>The findings showed a significant predictive association between perceived social support and infertility stress (R<sup>2</sup>=.540, β=-.73, P&lt; 0.00). <strong>Conclusions: </strong>This highlights a significant predictive association between the stress associated with infertility and the level of perceived social support, which significantly impacts individuals coping with fertility difficulties. These findings have implications for offering compassionate and efficient care, devising customized interventions and support programs for couples encountering fertility issues, and offering guidance to hospitals</p> Amna Abdul Ghafoor Rabia Mushtaq Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal 2024-05-31 2024-05-31 14 18 10.54393/pbmj.v7i05.1079 Prevalence of Depression in Physical Therapists Versus Nurses in Karachi Pakistan <p>Depression is one of the major mental disorders that affect the population of Pakistan with a prevalence rate of 40.6% in females and 32% in males. It affects the population of all ages. It also affects the mental health of Healthcare workers which impacts the quality of life of patients whom they care for in the working environment. <strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the prevalence and severity of depression among the physical therapists and nurses of Karachi. <strong>Methods:</strong> It was a cross-sectional study, conducted between Dec 2023 to May 2024 with a sample size of 661 calculated through Raosoftware. The Non-probability convenient sampling technique was used for sample selection. Data were collected through the Beck inventory questionnaire. The analysis of data were done through SPSS version 23.0. <strong>Results</strong>: The sample size of 661 research participants from which 310 were physical therapists and 351 were nurses recruited from 7 districts of Karachi. The level of depression was measured throgh Beck inventory questionnaire. The results found that the prevalence of depression is 64.67% in nurses and 36.12% in physical therapist. In addition, 63.83% physical therapists were more satisfied with their lifes while the level of satisfaction of nurses was 33.33%. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> It is concluded that depression is present in both professions but nurses are more depressed as compared to physical therapists.</p> Sabina Anwer Ali Komal Jamil Prem Lata Vinesh Kumar Obaida Arzoo Muhammad Faizan Hassan Sara Aamir Abro Lubna Ilyas Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal 2024-05-31 2024-05-31 19 24 10.54393/pbmj.v7i05.1093 Exploring the Connection Between Myopia and Personality Traits <p>Traditionally recognized as the direct result of a distinct physical difference between people, myopia is related to human psychology. <strong>Objectives:</strong> To investigate the relationship between myopia and specific personality features and to ascertain whether the degree of myopia is associated with a higher incidence of personality disorders. <strong>Methods:</strong> A multicenter, cross sectional research was conducted. Non-probability purposive sampling technique used to include 60 participants of aged 15-30 years. All study participants had a thorough evaluation that included obtaining data on each participant's age, gender, academic standing, NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (PI-R) personality test findings, autorefractometry measurements, subjective refraction. A thorough slit-lamp examination was performed to assess the anterior and posterior segments. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software. <strong>Results:</strong> Out of 60 myopes, 38 (63.3%) were female and 22 (36.6%) were male. 18 (30%) had mild myopia, 25 (41.6%) had moderate myopia, and 17 (28.33%) had high myopia. 10 (16.66%) of the mild myopia group displayed affability qualities and 8 (13.33%) had extroverted personalities. Subjects with moderate myopia, 8 (13.33%) showed affability, 16 (26.66%) showed extroversion, and 1 (1.66%) showed neuroticism. 8 (13.33%) of the high myopia group revealed neuroticism, 5 (8.33%) showed an openness to new experiences, and 4 (6.66%) had extroverted dispositions. In contrast to cases with mild and moderate myopia, a substantial connection between high myopia and neuroticism was found. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> A relationship between personality traits and myopia has been identified. Higher neuroticism scores were typically found in those with more severe visual impairment and high myopia</p> Maryam Jabbar Saqib Siddiq Faisal Rashid Hafiz Muhammad Usman Akhtar Shamshad Ali Rana Naveed Iqbal Khadija Jabbar Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal 2024-05-31 2024-05-31 25 29 10.54393/pbmj.v7i05.1090 Anxiety, Perceived Risk, Psychological Satisfaction as Correlates of Consumer Acceptance of E-banking in Pakistan <p>Consumer behavior is shaped by several psychological processes including anxiety, satisfaction and perception of risks involved in service utilization. Advancements in technology have significantly affected the consumer decisions. Financial security has always been one of the main concerns of many individuals which is also linked with their quality of life and emotional wellbeing. <strong>Objective: </strong>To identify the personal and social factors correlated with e-banking adoption, perceived risks linked to e-banking and psychological satisfaction related to e-banking adoption. <strong>Methods:</strong> A descriptive cross sectional study comprising 440 adults belonging to different areas of Pakistan were included in the study. The data were collected through a detailed demographic form and questionnaire specifically designed for this study between February 2023 and April 2023. Data were processed and analyzed using standard statistical software. <strong>Results: </strong>Age, education, gender turned out to be significant personal correlates of adoption of nonconventional modes. Income and residential setup were identified as significant social correlates of nonconventional mode adoption. Issues related to trust, ease of use, safety and usefulness were the main factors perceived as risks. Men and women showed different levels of psychological satisfaction attached with adoption of nonconventional modes of transaction. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Several personal and social factors are pivotal to adoption of nonconventional modes of financial transactions and lead to different pattern of perceived risks and satisfaction</p> Rehan Sohail Syed Shoaib Nazir Abia Nazim Umer Chaudhry Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal 2024-05-31 2024-05-31 30 35 10.54393/pbmj.v7i05.1089 Exploring the Risk Factors of Eye Health and Dementia: Insights and Implications <p>Maintaining good eye health is important for overall well-being because taking care of your eyes is not only crucial for vision but may also play a role in preserving cognitive functions. Recent research shows that poor vision itself can contribute to cognitive decline by limiting the mental stimulating activities. Dementia is not a natural part of ageing it develop when brain is damaged by some disease. The decline in the cognitive functioning like thinking, reasoning and remembering which disrupts the daily life activities. To stop the progression of dementia no effective treatment was available yet so the growing prevalence of dementia has prompted researchers to identify the risk factors to control and prevent dementia. Evidence suggests that various conditions affecting whole body are also modified risk factors for dementia. Numerous studies suggest that systemic conditions like obesity, hypertension, depression and diabetes increase the risk of dementia [1]. When these conditions combine with vision impairment, the risk of dementia is notably higher. Eye conditions such as cataracts, glaucoma, age related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetes retinopathy are most prevalent in increasing the risk of developing dementia. Several studies have been proposed the relationship between eye health and dementia. Microvascular damage in diabetic retinopathy can increase the risk of dementia. Vision loss due to contracts or any other condition has been link to an increased link of cognitive decline. Regular eye checkup could serve as a valuable tool for early detection of dementia risk. Furthermore, the loss of sensory input may exacerbate brain changes and are associated with dementia [2]. According to recent research it was concluded that age related muscular degeneration and diabetes related eye diseases are associated with an increased likelihood of developing dementia [3]. The association between dementia and eye health underscore the complex connection between the brain and different body systems. By recognizing these conditions healthcare providers can adopt more holistic approaches to patient care. In the era of increasing dementia researchers are ongoing to develop an eye test that helps to detect the early signs of dementia. However, ongoing studies in this era aim to detect the early stages of cognitive decline associated with dementia.</p> Riffat Mehboob Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal 2024-05-31 2024-05-31 01 01 10.54393/pbmj.v7i05.1094