Pakistan BioMedical Journal <p>Title of Journal: <strong>Pakistan Biomedical Journal (ISSN Online: 2709-2798, Print: 2709-278X)</strong></p> <p>Frequency: <strong>Monthly</strong></p> <p>Affiliated with: <strong>Lahore Medical Research Center</strong></p> <p><strong>Website: (</strong><a href=""></a>)</p> <p><strong>Address:</strong> 746-A, Kashmir Block, Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p>Published By: <strong>CrossLinks International Publishers (CLIP), Lahore, Pakistan</strong></p> <p><strong>Website: (</strong><a href=""></a>)</p> <p><strong>Address:</strong> 590-Karim Block, Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p><strong>Description:</strong></p> <p><strong>Pakistan BioMedical Journal (PBMJ)</strong> is an Official Journal of "<strong>Lahore Medical Research Center LLP" (LMRC)</strong> and is being funded and supported by Lahore Medical Research Center LLP (LMRC). Pakistan Biomedical Journal (PBMJ) is an open access, peer-reviewed international journal that publishes in all fields of health, allied health and biomedical sciences for an internationally diverse authorship. Clinical studies, clinical trials, population studies, public health, discovery medicine, study of microbes, molecular and cellular biology, basic mechanisms of biology, genetics, cancer biology, molecular medicine, pharmacology, virology, chemical biology, immunobiology, chemical biology, physiological and pathological studies are within the scope of journal.<br />A highly-cited, multi-disciplinary, international editorial board assures timely publication of manuscripts. Reviews on latest advancements in biomedical sciences</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Accreditation:</strong></span></p> <p><strong>Approved by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for the year 2023-24</strong></p> <p><strong>Fee &amp; Subscription Charges</strong></p> <p>Article Processing Fee: <strong>NONE</strong></p> <p>Article Publication Fee (National) Rs 35000 / Article</p> <p>Article Publication Fee (International ) 200 USD / Article</p> <p>Printed Version: Rs 2500/per copy</p> <p><strong>Waiver Policy</strong></p> <p>If an author has no funds to pay such charges, he may request for full or partial waiver of publication fees. The decision may however vary from case to case.</p> <p>We do not want charges to prevent the publication of worthy material.</p> <p><strong><u>Submissions</u></strong></p> <p><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">Submission are welcome and may be submitted here. </span><a style="background-color: #ffffff; font-size: 0.875rem;" href=""></a></p> en-US <p>This is an open-access journal and all the published articles / items are distributed under the terms of the <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. For comments <a href=""></a></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> (Prof. Dr. Riffat Mehboob) (Khurram Mehboob) Wed, 01 Nov 2023 07:26:48 +0000 OJS 60 Advancements in the Fight against HIV/AIDS <p>For forty years, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has posed a threat to world health, resulting in unimaginable misery and fatalities. Significant advancements in the knowledge and treatment of HIV/AIDS have been accomplished since the early stages of the epidemic.&nbsp; One of the most important aspects of the fight against AIDS is still stopping the spread of HIV. HIV prevention has undergone a revolutionary change with the advent of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP). In high-risk groups, PrEP dramatically lowers the risk of HIV infection when taken as directed. Furthermore, increasing condom usage and safe sex practices brought about by awareness-raising and education efforts have helped to reduce the number of new HIV infections in many areas. Disparities in access to preventative resources still exist, however, which highlights the need of ongoing efforts to ensure that everyone may use these treatments [1].</p> <p>Treatment for HIV/AIDS has come a long way in the last several decades. The mainstay of addressing the disease is antiretroviral treatment (ART), which has changed it from a fatal illness to a chronic one. The quality of life and life expectancy of patients have improved with the development of new, more effective, and less toxic antiretroviral medications. In addition, the use of multi-drug regimens has improved viral suppression and decreased the risk of treatment resistance. Treatment plans now include targeted therapies in addition to medicine, such using CRISPR or other gene editing technologies to attack the virus at its genetic core. Additionally, the creation of long-acting injectable ART formulations has improved treatment compliance, lessening the strain on patients and medical systems [2].</p> <p>Notwithstanding these developments, problems including medication resistance, treatment accessibility, and the persistence of latent viral reservoirs still exist. To get over these challenges and get one step closer to the ultimate objective of a workable treatment, research must continue. Many nations are making progress toward these goals, but there is still more to be done, especially in areas with weak healthcare systems. In addition to medical treatments, elimination calls for tackling the societal factors that contribute to the illness, such as inequality, stigma, and prejudice. Addressing these more general concerns, encouraging thorough sex education, and enabling communities to speak out for their own health are all necessary components of effective eradication initiatives. There has been a great deal of advancement in the prevention, treatment, and eradication of HIV/AIDS in the battle against the disease. To reach the ultimate objective of an AIDS-free world, however, more research and cooperation between scientists, medical professionals, legislators, and communities are required. Looking back over the last forty years, we should be encouraged by the advancements and reaffirm our commitment to making sure that HIV/AIDS does not pose a danger to global health for coming generations.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Riffat Mehboob Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan BioMedical Journal Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Patient Satisfaction with Physiotherapy Services: A Comparative Study between Public and Private Hospitals <p>The level of services delivered by physiotherapists to recipients is stated by the satisfaction of patient but patient satisfaction studies are lacking within physiotherapy domain in public and private hospitals in Pakistan. <strong>Objective: </strong>To ascertain patient’s satisfaction with physiotherapy services and to compare the results in this context between public and private hospitals. <strong>Methods: </strong>This cross- sectional observational study was conducted in 3 public and 3 private hospitals of Lahore in a time period of three months. Total 148 patients were evaluated, 74 from the public hospitals and 74 from the private hospitals. The 5- point Likert scale was used in patients to identify patient satisfaction from physiotherapy services. <strong>Results: </strong>The study indicated that the level of satisfaction of patients who are receiving physiotherapy services is higher in private hospitals than in public hospitals<strong>. </strong>95.8% of the patients were satisfied with the physiotherapy services received from private hospitals and only 20.6 % of the patients receiving physiotherapy services from public hospitals were satisfied with their treatment. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>Patient satisfaction is an essential domain of the extent of quality of care. So, it must be appraised on time to offer better facilities to the patients. There was a high level of satisfaction described by patient receiving Outpatient Physiotherapy Department (OPD) services in private hospitals while most of the patients receiving OPD services from public hospitals were dissatisfied with their treatment.</p> Mahnoor Tariq, Sara Hussain, Maida Shabbir, Shabah Surriya Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan BioMedical Journal Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Status of Mobility in Patients with Lower Limb Amputation Using Prostheses <p>Amputation a loss of limb, results in chronic pain and disability of the limbs. People with amputations are limited in their daily mobility, and quality of life. <strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the mobility status in people with lower limb amputation using prosthesis.<strong> Methods:</strong> A total of 37 participants, both male and female with lower limb amputation and using lower limb prosthesis for four weeks or longer, took part in this cross-sectional study, conducted at the Pakistan Institute of Prosthetic and Orthotic Sciences Peshawar from 2020. Demographic data together with cause for amputation, time of use of prosthesis and employment status was determined by the researchers via a structured pre tested questionnaire after consent.<strong> Results:</strong> A total sample of 37 participants, 27 males (73%) and 10 females (27%), was collected where the mean age of participants was 43.65 ±14.72. Among the 37 participants, 30 (81.1%) were married and 7(18.9%) were unmarried. A total of 32(86.5%) participants underwent below-knee amputation while 5(13.5%) participants had above-knee amputation. The causes of amputation were bomb blast (n=8), diabetes (n=11), RTA (n=9) and bullet injury (n=9). All the participants underwent rehabilitation. A total of 2 participants (5.4%) experienced high difficulty in mobility, 24 participants (64.9 %) had moderate difficulty and 11 participants (29.7 %) had little difficulty. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Perceived status of mobility was moderate (64.9%) in most of the prosthesis users. About 29.7% had little difficulty and very few number (5.4%) had high difficulty using prosthesis.</p> Fazal Rehman, Ghulam Hussain, Muheebur Rehman, Rida Shabbir, Zardad Khan, Saif Ullah, Majeeda Ghani Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan BioMedical Journal Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Nocturnal Leg Cramps in Young Adults <p>Nocturnal Leg cramps are painful, involuntary muscle spasms that occur in the legs while sleeping, most particularly in the calves. The soreness usually lasts less than five minutes and occurs before or immediately after you fall asleep. They most commonly affect the calf muscles but can also affect the foot and thighs. Leg cramps can affect anybody at any age, but as people become older, they become more common and often more severe. <strong>Objective: </strong>To study the prevalence and risk factors of nocturnal leg cramps in young adults in Punjab. <strong>Methods:</strong> This was an observational cross-sectional study; data were collected from cities of Punjab. 300 men and women of age 20 to 40 years were included who have nocturnal leg cramps. <strong>Results:</strong> The prevalence of nocturnal leg cramps was 47.3% according to this study. Nocturnal leg cramps are closely related to 3 to 4 hours of standing without changing body posture. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Research demonstrates that teachers, workers, and medical professionals were more likely to experience nocturnal leg cramps. Prolonged standing and footwear were linked risk factors.</p> Sameen Arshad, Aroosa Kanwal, Muhammad Ijaz, Sania Maqbool, Tamknat Ilyas Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan BioMedical Journal Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Antibiotic Efficacy of Commercially Available Antibiotics on Indigenous Microbes Isolated from Rotten Fruits <p>The human commonly consume fruits as food. Indigenous microbes are responsible for the spoilage of fruits. If bacteria spoil consumed fruit, they can cause infections in the human body that may lead to severe consequences. Some commercially available drugs are effective against an infection, and some show no or little effect. <strong>Objective: </strong>To check the efficacy of locally available drugs against indigenous microbes that are commonly responsible for infections in natives. <strong>Methods:</strong> Microbes isolated from rotten fruits are used to check that the antibiotics available in our market are effective against them. Different antibiotics are used against these bacteria. Control antibiotics determine the efficacy of each antibiotic. <strong>Results:</strong> All the antibiotics are effective but to a different extent. The presence of the active compound in the drug determines its effectiveness. If the active compound is present in pure form and adequate amounts in the dosage of the drug, it will be effective. Bacteria become resistant to the drugs, which is the major issue faced. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>Antibiotic resistance and specificity of drugs are also important factors that determine the efficacy of the drugs. Antibiotic resistance is influenced by the uncontrolled, unnecessary, and recommended use of antibiotics in society. The specificity of the drug to the microbes also contributes to the effectiveness of antibiotics. </p> Muddasar Wahab, Anwaar Iftikhar, Raja Tahir Mehmood, Fozia Ibrahim, Syed Wajahat Ullah, Rana Hissan Ullah, Muhammad Atif, Muhammad Ali, Rida Farooq, Mehvish Mumtaz Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan BioMedical Journal Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the Efficacy and Safety of Herbal Remedies for the Management of Sleep Deprivation in Insomnia <p>Insomnia is most common sleep disorder effecting many lives. Various factors contribute in our sleep cycle like stress, daily activity, workload, use of gadgets/ screen time and many more. If your circadian rhythm got disturbed it will affect your sleep cycle. It might lead to many health issues, fatigue, decline in cognitive function. Now a day’s adults along with youth are having insomnia issues due to multiple reasons. If it remains untreated it will affect your quality of life. Since long pharmacological therapies are used that will have negative effect on longer run so herbs like valarine, chamomile and lavenders are now being used because of their sedative properties it acts on nervous system and help to get rid of insomnia. Herbs have gained popularity as its natural and help sleep better.</p> Nimra Naeem, Muhammad Bilal, Asra Abbas, Fatima Raza Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan BioMedical Journal Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000