Pakistan BioMedical Journal <p>Title of Journal: <strong>Pakistan Biomedical Journal (ISSN Online: 2709-2798, Print: 2709-278X)</strong></p> <p>Frequency: <strong>Monthly</strong></p> <p>Affiliated with: <strong>Lahore Medical Research Center</strong></p> <p><strong>Website: (</strong><a href=""></a>)</p> <p><strong>Address:</strong> 746-A, Kashmir Block, Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p>Published By: <strong>CrossLinks International Publishers (CLIP), Lahore, Pakistan</strong></p> <p><strong>Website: (</strong><a href=""></a>)</p> <p><strong>Address:</strong> 590-Karim Block, Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p><strong>Description:</strong></p> <p><strong>Pakistan BioMedical Journal (PBMJ)</strong> is an Official Journal of "<strong>Lahore Medical Research Center LLP" (LMRC)</strong> and is being funded and supported by Lahore Medical Research Center LLP (LMRC). Pakistan Biomedical Journal (PBMJ) is an open access, peer-reviewed international journal that publishes in all fields of health, allied health and biomedical sciences for an internationally diverse authorship. Clinical studies, clinical trials, population studies, public health, discovery medicine, study of microbes, molecular and cellular biology, basic mechanisms of biology, genetics, cancer biology, molecular medicine, pharmacology, virology, chemical biology, immunobiology, chemical biology, physiological and pathological studies are within the scope of journal.<br />A highly-cited, multi-disciplinary, international editorial board assures timely publication of manuscripts. Reviews on latest advancements in biomedical sciences</p> <p><strong>Fee &amp; Subscription Charges</strong></p> <p>Article Processing Fee: <strong>NONE</strong></p> <p>Article Publication Fee (National): <strong>NONE</strong></p> <p>Article Publication Fee (International ): <strong>NONE</strong></p> <p>Printed Version: Rs 2500/per copy</p> <p><strong>Waiver Policy</strong></p> <p>If an author has no funds to pay such charges, he may request for full or partial waiver of publication fees. The decision may however vary from case to case.</p> <p>We do not want charges to prevent the publication of worthy material.</p> <p><strong><u>Submissions</u></strong></p> <p><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">Submission are welcome and may be submitted here. </span><a style="background-color: #ffffff; font-size: 0.875rem;" href=""></a></p> en-US <p>This is an open-access journal and all the published articles / items are distributed under the terms of the <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. For comments <a href=""></a></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> (Prof. Dr. Riffat Mehboob) (Khurram Mehboob) Tue, 28 Feb 2023 05:02:48 +0000 OJS 60 Dietary Modifications in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Public Health Concern <p>Occasional periods or no menstrual periods&nbsp;at all are typical symptoms of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). It is due to an excessive synthesis of the hormone androgens, people with PCOS frequently have numerous ovarian cysts [1]. According to literature between 33 and 83 percent of women with PCOS who are overweight or obese shows signs of acne, hirsutism, and male pattern baldness and if not managed high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases and endometrial cancer. Insulin levels in PCOS patients are frequently reported to be higher than usual. The pancreas is where hormone insulin is made [2]. It works with the body's cells in converting sugar (glucose) into energy. The sugar levels in blood may increase if your body doesn't create enough insulin [3]. This can also occur when you develop insulin resistance, which prevents you from adequately using the insulin that you do make [4]. The body may try to produce excessive amounts of insulin if you develop insulin resistance in an effort to maintain normal blood sugar levels. Your ovaries may start to create more androgens like testosterone if your insulin levels are too high [5]. The obese and overweight according to BMI can cause the insulin resistance [6]. Due to their insulin resistance, people with PCOS typically deal with this</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>issue, which can keep reduced weight more challenging [7]. It could be more challenging to regulate insulin resistance and, as a result, weight reduction if you eat a diet high in refined carbs, which including starchy and sugary meals [8].</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Tallat Anwar Faridi Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan BioMedical Journal Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Association Between Tea and Coffee Consumption and Symptoms of Iron Deficiency Among University Students <p>Excessive consumption of tea and coffee has been linked with dietary iron deficiency in many clinical trials. People who consume tea or coffee with meal are at higher risk of developing dietary iron deficiency. <strong>Objective: </strong>The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of iron deficiency in relation with tea or coffee among female university students. <strong>Methods: </strong>150 female students at University of Lahore selected randomly. All participants were willing to participate in this survey. Questionnaires (on the base of 25 iron deficiency related question) were used for the collection of data to assess the relation between consumption of tea and iron deficiency. <strong>Results: </strong>88 participants reported experiencing headache when not taking tea or coffee for long time. 41 desire to consume it all the time. 49 participants experience fatigue when not consumed tea or coffee. 31 participants consume tea or coffee with meal. 27 participants experience symptoms of anemia. 68 participants consume tea or coffee for mind relaxation. 54 participants take tea or coffee for better sleep. 83 participants consume for weight management. About 91 participants take dietary supplement for iron less than 1-2 times a day. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>This study shows that all the participants consume tea or coffee on daily basis while majority of them take with meal. The participants revealed to have symptoms of iron deficiency. Consumption of tea or coffee with meal is one of the reasons of dietary iron deficiency as chelates present in tea and coffee hinders the absorption of iron from food.</p> Hafiza Madiha Jaffar, Bahisht Rizwan, Al Noor Naseem, Umm-e-Habiba Asghar, Zabreen Ghalib, Iram Tariq, Gull e Raana Najeeb, Tania Arshad, Aisha Ahmed, Maryam Munir, Anum Azhar Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan BioMedical Journal Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Physicochemical Characteristics, Total Phenolic Content and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Apple (Malus Domestica) Peel Powder <p>Apple peel is considered as a waste product in many fruit industries but it is a noteworthy source of nutrients and phytochemicals, particularly polyphenols which have the ability to scavenge free radicals. <strong>Objectives: </strong>To study the physicochemical properties of apple (<em>Malus domestica</em>) peel powder, as well as its TPC and free radical scavenging activities. <strong>Methods: </strong>Proximate analysis of the apple peels powder was carried out. Total polyphenol content of apple peel powder was determined. The total content of phenolic compounds was expressed as gallic acid equivalent, i.e. mg GAE/100g of extract dry weight of sample. <strong>Results: </strong>The results of physicochemical characteristics moisture (7.65±0.88%), ash (2.50±0.35%), fat (1.18±0.02%), fiber (15.25±1.03%), protein (2.79±0.05%), carbohydrates (71.0±2.30%) and energy were 312±4.70 Kcal/100g. The total phenolic contents in the methanolic extract of apple peel powder were 320±5.4 mg GAE/100g while in H<sub>2</sub>O extract 201±4.20 mg/100g.&nbsp;The findings of the apple peel powder's methanolic extract's capacity to scavenge free radicals varied from 25.40±1.30<strong>—</strong>69.2±3.80%, while those of the water extract were 14.30±1.05<strong>—</strong>45.62±1.90% &nbsp;and BHT were 17.8±1.15<strong>—</strong>51.62±2.15% &nbsp;at concentration 20-100 µg/ml. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>The outcomes showed that both apple peel powder extracts had promising total polyphenols and have strong free radical scavenging activity. These findings suggest that the apple peel powder act as robust naturally occurring antioxidants and may be employed as a preventative therapy for several oxidative stress-related degenerative disorders.</p> Muhammad Khalid Saeed, Naseem Zahra, Asma Saeed, Quratulain Syed Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan BioMedical Journal Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Poverty on Secondary School Academic Achievement among Girls in District Faisalabad, Pakistan; A cross sectional study <p>One of the most fundamental and obvious human rights in all countries is the right to an education. However, poverty has continued to be a stumbling block for the majority of people in achieving this fundamental right. Objective: To investigate how poverty affects academic performance of girls in secondary school. <strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 students of schools in District Faisalabad, Pakistan. The questionnaire designed for this study is self-designed, multi-section survey i-e. Demographic information including age, sex, educational level, family financial status. The (SPSS) version 22.0 was used to examine the data that had been gathered. <strong>Results:</strong> According to the current study, there were 100 total respondents, and all of them were women. About 39% of respondents' fathers were illiterate or had just a middle level of education, 28% had graduated, 21% had a middle to metric level of education, and only 12% had a high level of education. About 54% of respondents' moms were illiterate or had just a middle level of education, 21% had graduated, 17% had a middle to metric level of education, and only 8% had a high level of education. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study comes to the conclusion that poverty is a growing problem today and that the number of individuals living in poverty is always rising. The research also showed a strong correlation between children's academic success and their parents' socioeconomic level.</p> Rabia Khalid, Muhammad Subhan Nazar, Shahbaz Ahmad Zakki, Ehtisham Altaf, Asim Raza, Maham Saeed, Madiha Khalid Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan BioMedical Journal Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of pH and Different Fermentation Time Intervals on the Production of Single Cell Proteins (SCPs) from Potato Peels <p>Dried cells of microorganisms such as fungi, algae, and bacteria, known as Single-Cell Proteins (SCPs), are utilized as a source of protein supplements in animal feed or human food. These SCPs can be produced through the use of low-cost feedstocks and waste materials as sources of carbon and energy, which can be converted into biomass and concentrated proteins.<strong> Objective:</strong> To optimize the yield and growth of dry cell biomass through the manipulation of fermentation conditions. <strong>Methods:</strong> A batch fermentation process was used to produce dry cell biomass from a microorganism. Different pH values, fermentation times, and reactor configurations were tested, and the resulting biomass was analyzed for its protein content. <strong>Results:</strong> The maximum yield of dry cell biomass was achieved at pH 4.5, with a yield of 1.951 g/100 ml. The maximum dry biomass was achieved after 72 hours of fermentation, with a yield of 2.824 g/100 ml. The maximum yield of dry biomass was achieved with an Airlift fermenter at an aeration rate of 1.0 vvm and a temperature of 35°C for 72 hours, resulting in a yield of 5.452 g/L. The protein content of the dried cell biomass was found to be in the range of 45-55%. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study demonstrates that the yield and growth of dry cell biomass can be optimized by controlling the fermentation conditions, specifically pH, fermentation time, and reactor configuration. These findings may have implications for the industrial-scale production of dry cell biomass, as they offer insight into how to maximize yield and protein content.</p> Hira Nadeem Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan BioMedical Journal Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Variations in Biochemical Parameters in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients of Septicemia <p>Septicemia is an infection caused by poisoning of blood by bacteria and is a prevalent disease in Pakistan. However, there is limited understanding of the pathogenesis of abnormal blood, liver and renal chemistry tests in septicemia. <strong>Objective:</strong> To determine variations in respective LFTs and RFTs and CBCs of diabetic and non-diabetic patients of septicemia. <strong>Methods:</strong> A descriptive, observational, cross-sectional research was directed, involving 101 participants diagnosed with septicemia. Study setting was Mayo Hospital Lahore. A specially designed Performa was used to record data, including liver function tests, renal function tests, and complete blood count for each patient. The data were analyzed using the latest version of SPSS. <strong>Results:</strong> In this study 45/101 patients of septicemia had diabetes. LFTs were also same for both non-diabetic and diabetic patients except Albumin which was low in diabetic patients but normal in non-diabetic patients. CBC were equally deranged in all diabetic and non-diabetic patients. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>This research provides important understandings into the variations of LFTs and RFTs and CBCs in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with septicemia. The findings suggest that while LFTs are similar between the two groups, there is a difference in albumin levels, highlighting the need for further investigation into the role of diabetes in septicemia.</p> Zoya Manzoor, Maria Aslam, Kausar Perveen, Fouzia Bashir Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan BioMedical Journal Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Technology in Advancing Medical Practice <p>The role of technology in advancing medical practice and improving patient outcomes is increasingly vital in today's healthcare landscape. In the past few decades, we have seen rapid advancements in medical technology, which have transformed how we diagnose, treat, and prevent diseases. Medical technology has brought about remarkable improvements in patient outcomes and quality of life, as well as reducing healthcare costs.</p> <p>One of the most significant advances in medical technology is the development of electronic health records (EHRs). EHRs allow healthcare providers to store patient information electronically, making it more accessible and easier to share between healthcare providers. With EHRs, healthcare providers can access patient records in real-time, enabling them to make informed decisions about patient care. EHRs also enable healthcare providers to track patient outcomes and improve the quality of care provided to patients.</p> <p>Medical imaging technology has also revolutionized medical practice. Medical imaging technology includes X-rays, CT scans, MRI, and PET scans. These technologies allow healthcare providers to visualize the inside of a patient's body, enabling them to diagnose and treat diseases more accurately and effectively. In addition, the development of 3D printing technology has allowed healthcare providers to create custom prosthetics and implants for patients, improving their quality of life.</p> <p>Telemedicine is another area where technology has advanced medical practice. Telemedicine allows healthcare providers to diagnose and treat patients remotely, reducing the need for in-person visits. This technology has been particularly useful in rural areas where patients have limited access to healthcare. Telemedicine also reduces healthcare costs by reducing the need for expensive in-person visits.</p> <p>In conclusion, technology has played a significant role in advancing medical practice and improving patient outcomes. From electronic health records to medical imaging technology and telemedicine, medical technology has transformed how we diagnose, treat, and prevent diseases. While there are still challenges to overcome, such as ensuring the security and privacy of patient information, it is clear that medical technology will continue to play a critical role in improving healthcare outcomes and reducing healthcare costs. As healthcare providers and technology companies work together to develop and implement new medical technologies, we can expect to see continued progress in the years to come.</p> Riffat Mehboob Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan BioMedical Journal Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000