Genotypes Variation and Molecular Epidemiology Of The Hbv Chronic Liver Infection In The Local Population Of Pakistan: An Overview Of The Recent Literature

Genotypes Variation and Molecular Epidemiology of HBV Chronic Liver Infection


  • Bushra Tahreem The University of Management and Technology, Lahore
  • Ghadir Ali Department of Life Sciences, School of Science, University of Management and Technology (UMT), Lahore, Pakistan
  • Haroon Ahmed Department of Biosciences, COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI), Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Asim Shahzad Department of Microbiology, Hazara University, Garden Campus, Mansehra, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Khurram Department of Life Sciences, School of Science, University of Management and Technology (UMT), Lahore, Pakistan
  • Nabiha Naeem Department of Life Sciences, School of Science, University of Management and Technology (UMT), Lahore, Pakistan
  • Aquib Nazar Department of Life Sciences, School of Science, University of Management and Technology (UMT), Lahore, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Haris University of Management and Technology
  • Hussan . Department of Microbiology, University of Haripur, Pakistan
  • Shahrukh . Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Okara, Okara, Pakistan



Hepatitis, Virus, Epidemiology, Genotype, Transmission, Seropositivity


Hepatitis is defined as an enlargement of the liver. Viral hepatitis is the word used for the group of liver ailments generated by viral infections. There are approximately 350 million people worldwide who have chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. HBV is estimated to kill 563,000 people each year and cause a high rate of infection. The Hepatitis B DNA virus comprises of a 3.2 kb relaxed-spherical DNA molecule. Of the total eight genotypes of HBV, genotype D is the most common, with an actual incidence rate of 63.71%, followed by genotype A at 10%, according to ten distinct studies conducted in diverse parts of Pakistan. Symptoms may take up to six months to emerge after exposure. Early signs and symptoms of HBV infection are lethargy, nausea, poor appetite, vomiting, pyrexia, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, gastrointestinal disturbances, dark urine, and jaundice. Pakistan is one of the worst affected countries, with over 40 million Pakistanis infected with HBV. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology and natural history of HBV infection and its diagnosis and treatment.


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DOI: 10.54393/pbmj.v5i4.372
Published: 2022-04-30

How to Cite

Tahreem, B., Ali , G. ., Ahmed, H. ., Shahzad, A. ., Khurram, M., Naeem , N. ., Nazar , A. ., Haris , M. ., ., H., & ., S. (2022). Genotypes Variation and Molecular Epidemiology Of The Hbv Chronic Liver Infection In The Local Population Of Pakistan: An Overview Of The Recent Literature: Genotypes Variation and Molecular Epidemiology of HBV Chronic Liver Infection. Pakistan BioMedical Journal, 5(4), 14–19.



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