Incidence of infertility in females and Evaluation of its Causes Using Ultrasonography
Incidence and Causes of Infertility in Females
Keywords:Infertility, Submucosal fibroid, polycystic ovarian syndrome, Primary infertility
Infertility is a condition in which a woman is not able to conceive following 12 months of regular and unprotected intercourse. It is a major health issue that affects 186 million people worldwide. Objective: To determine the incidence and causes of infertility in females using ultrasound. Methods: It is a cross-sectional study conducted in a private diagnostic Centre in Gujrat, Pakistan, over a period of 4 months. A sample size of 75 was calculated using a convenient approach after informed consent. Patients subjected to ultrasonography were married, diagnosed infertile women between 20–45 years. Patients with hysterectomy or congenital ovarian abnormalities were excluded. Collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: The study showed that the incidence of infertility is higher in 20-25 age group and least in 41-45 age group. The majority of females 51(68%) had primary infertility while 24(32%) had secondary infertility. The majority of infertile women were from a moderate socioeconomic background. The common cause of infertility was due to submucosal fibroid 25(33.3%), hormonal imbalance in 16(21.3%) and PCOS in 14(18.17%). Conclusions: The study concluded that the incidence of infertility is highest in 20-25 age groups. Submucosal fibroid, hormonal imbalance, and PCOS are the most common causes of infertility in females.
Lindsay TJ, Vitrikas K. Evaluation and treatment of infertility. American family physician. 2015;91(5):308-314.
Aflatoonian A, Baghianimoghadam B, Partovi P, Abdoli A, Hemmati P, Tabibnejad N, et al. A new classification for female infertility. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2011;38(4):379-381.
Vander Borght M, Wyns C. Fertility and infertility: Definition and epidemiology. Clinical biochemistry. 2018;62:2-10.
Zorrilla M, Yatsenko AN. The genetics of infertility: current status of the field. Current genetic medicine reports. 2013;1(4):247-260.
Abdallah H-EA-AM. Study of Female Infertility in Sudanese using Ultrasonography: Sudan University of Science and Technology; 2019.
Mohammed A, MAYSA SE, Keriakos N. Ultrasound Role in Management of Female Infertility. The Medical Journal of Cairo University. 2020;88(September):1523-1530.
Elhussein OG, Ahmed MA, Suliman SO, Adam I. Epidemiology of infertility and characteristics of infertile couples requesting assisted reproduction in a low-resource setting in Africa, Sudan. Fertility research and practice. 2019;5(1):1-5.
Organization WH. WHO fact sheet on infertility. LWW; 2021. p. e52.
Wasilewski T, Łukaszewicz-Zając M, Wasilewska J, Mroczko B. Biochemistry of infertility. Clinica Chimica Acta. 2020;508:185-190.
Peres H, Foss M, Pereira L, VIANA C. An Update-The Role of Nutrients Crucial in the Infertility of Couples-New Insights for the Effects of Iodine, Selenium, Omega 3 Fatty Acids and Magnesium. J Nutrition Health Food Sci. 2017;5(7):1-6.
Walker MH, Tobler KJ. Female Infertility. 2020.
Inhorn MC. Global infertility and the globalization of new reproductive technologies: illustrations from Egypt. Social science & medicine. 2003;56(9):1837-1851.
Turner KA, Rambhatla A, Schon S, Agarwal A, Krawetz SA, Dupree JM, et al. Male infertility is a Women's health issue-research and clinical evaluation of male infertility is needed. Cells. 2020;9(4):990.
Ahmed HM, Khan M, Yasmin F, Jawaid H, Khalid H, Shigri A, et al. Awareness regarding causes of infertility among out-patients at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Cureus. 2020;12(4).
Stentz NC, Koelper N, Barnhart KT, Sammel MD, Senapati S. Infertility and mortality. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2020;222(3):251. e1-. e10.
Podolska M, Bidzan M. Infertility as a psychological problem. Ginekologia Polska. 2011;82(1).
Sadow CA, Sahni VA. Imaging female infertility. Abdominal imaging. 2014;39(1):92-107.
Zeinalabdeen MZ, Gar-Elnabi ME. Characterization of Infertility using Ultrasonography. 2020.
Klenov VE, Van Voorhis BJ. Ultrasound in infertility treatments. Clinical obstetrics and gynecology. 2017;60(1):108-120.
Barbieri RL. Female infertility. Yen and Jaffe's Reproductive Endocrinology: Elsevier; 2019. p. 556-81. e7.
Mustafa M, Sharifa A, Hadi J, IIIzam E, Aliya S. Male and female infertility: causes, and management. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences. 2019;18:27-32.
Goodarzi MO, Dumesic DA, Chazenbalk G, Azziz R. Polycystic ovary syndrome: etiology, pathogenesis and diagnosis. Nature reviews endocrinology. 2011;7(4):219-231.
Ranjan P, Ranjan R. Role of Imaging in Female Infertility. World Journal of Surgical Research. 2016;5(6).
Olpin JD, Kennedy A. Imaging Assessment of Infertile Couples: Why and When. Current Radiology Reports. 2015;3(11):1-13.
Abdelsalam M. Characterization of FemaleInfertilityusing Ultrasonography: Sudan University of Science and Technology; 2021.
Majumdar MG, Bansal R. Protocols and Various Imaging Modalities in Female Infertility.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan BioMedical Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This is an open-access journal and all the published articles / items are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. For comments firstname.lastname@example.org