Community Perceptions Regarding Chikungunya Vector Proof Housing In Lahore, Pakistan for Sustainable Development


  • Serena Taj Institute of Public health, Quetta, Pakistan
  • Saleem Muhammad Rana Institute of Public health, The University of Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Amber Hassan University Institute of Public health, The University of Lahore
  • Tallat Anwar Faridi University Institute of Public health, The University of Lahore
  • Akash John University Institute of Radiological and Medical Imaging Sciences, The University of Lahore, Gujrat Campus



Sustainable Development Agenda is gaining importance, acknowledging its importance right adaptation of interventions for housing regarding vector-borne disease prevention as suggested by “Keeping the Vector Out” can make cities and human settlements vector-proof and sustainable.Objective: To assess community perceptions regarding chikungunya vector-proof housing for sustainable development. MethodS: Descriptive cross-sectional study included 400 households of Aziz Bhatti Town, Lahore. A semi-structured questionnaire administered by personal interview method to the available and willing adult member of the household by Researcher with the environmental inspector and lady sanitary patrol of Dengue and Polio survey teams of DDO office Aziz Bhatti Town Lahore, using simple random sampling technique after consent and ethical approval. The questionnaire was pre-tested (Pilot). Data analyzed using SPSS 20.0. Results: Among 400 households interviewed, the majority 69.7% were living in houses that were built >9 years ago, 86.8 % were concrete. Climatic change and global warming can increase disease carried by mosquito AedesAegypti believed by 90.2 % and their impact can be mitigated by improved housing reported by 91.5%. Regarding community perceptions about vector-proof housing, 74.6% believed that improved house design can prevent entry and breeding of mosquitoes therefore, 86.3% screened windows doors and eaves, 83.0% believed that they always checked cracks and crevices in the wall, floor and roof and cemented them. But 58.7% believed that they do not consider mosquito prevention housing interventions as one of the important factors when constructing their house as among barriers 73.5% could not afford modern building materials, 73.5% lack detailed knowledge and 13.8% thought screening as an obstruction to ventilation. Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika disease are spread by Aedes mosquito species believed by 78% who (agreed and strongly agreed) still 81.8% urged for health education regarding chikungunya vector proof housing.Conclusion: Housing improvement can mitigate the impacts of climatic change and vector-borne disease. But health program planners need to identify and facilitate the removal of barriers for adoption of Vector proof housing.


World Health Organization. Keeping the vector out: housing improvements for vector control and sustainable development. [Online]. Available from:, [Accessed 19 Mar2019].

World Health Organization. Global vector control response 2017-2030. [Online]. Available from:,[Accessed 22 Jan 2022].

Tusting LS, Ippolito MM, Willey BA, Kleinschmidt I, Dorsey G, Gosling RD, et al. The evidence for improving housing to reduce malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Malar J. 2015;14(1):209-221.

World health Organization. Chikunguniya factsheet: Key facts.2017. Geneva.

Maria Curie-Skłodowska University. Book of Abstracts: Numerical aspects in mathematical modelling of vector-borne diseases. [Online]. Available from . [Accessed 22 Jan 2022].

Mallhi TH, Khan YH, Tanveer N, Bukhsh A, Khan AH, Aftab RA, et al. Awareness and knowledge of Chikungunya infection following its outbreak in Pakistan among health care students and professionals: a nationwide survey. PeerJ. 2018; 6:5481-5498.

Badar N, Ikram A, Salman M, Alam M, Umair M, Arshad Y, et al. Epidemiology of Chikungunya virus isolates 2016-2018. Pakistan. Journal of Medical Virology. 2021, 93(11):6124-6131.

Shi J, Su Z, Fan Z, Wang J, Liu S, Zhang B,et al. Extensive evolution analysis of the global chikungunya virus strains revealed the origination of CHIKV epidemics in Pakistan in 2016. VirologicaSinica. 2017,32(6):520-532.

World Health Organization. Climate Change publications: Global warming.2018. Geneva.

Bordoloi B, Saharia S. Climate change and emerging vector-borne diseases in IndiaInt. J. Life Sci. Pharma Res. 2021; 11(2):190-193.

Williams PC, Bartlett AW, HowardJones A, McMullan B, Khatami A, Britton PN,et al. Impact of climate change and biodiversity collapse on the global emergence and spread of infectious diseases. Journal of paediatrics and child health. 2021;57(11):1811-1818.

Anyamba A, Chretien JP, Britch SC, Soebiyanto RP, Small JL, Jepsen R, et al. Global Disease Outbreaks Associated with the 2015-2016 El Niño Event. Scientific reports. 2019; 9(1):1930-1932.

Harapan H, Yufika A, Anwar S, Te H, Hasyim H, Nusa R, Dhewantara PW, Mudatsir M. Effects of El Niño Southern oscillation and dipole mode index on chikungunya infection in Indonesia. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2020;5(3):119.

Iqbal MF, Athar H. Variability, trends, and teleconnections of observed precipitation over Pakistan. Theoretical and applied climatology. 2018;134(1):613-632.

Adnan M, Rehman N, Khan AA, Mir KA, Khan MA. Influence of natural forcing phenomena on precipitation of Pakistan.PJM. 2017;12(24):23-35

Afzal M, Haroon MA, Rana AS, Imran A. Influence of North Atlantic oscillations and Southern oscillations on winter precipitation of Northern Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Meteorology. 2013;9(18).1-8

Sellen D. Evolutionary Medicine, Evolution and Human Behavior.New York: Oxford University Press; 2014.

Sharma A, Gupta V, Khandelwal A. The knowledge, attitude and practices regarding commonly occurring mosquito borne diseases among people in catering area of urban health and training centre. Int J Community Med Public Health.2017; 4(8): 2864-2869.

Kaindoa EW, Finda M, Kiplagat J, Mkandawile G, Nyoni A, Coetzee M, et al. Housing gaps, mosquitoes and public viewpoints: a mixed methods assessment of relationships between house characteristics, malaria vector biting risk and community perspectives in rural Tanzania. Malar. J. 2018; 17(1): 298-300.

Rashid M, Sultana H, Zaman MT. Knowledge and awareness regarding chikungunya among urban community people of selected area of Dhaka City Bangladesh.J Infect Dis. 2018; 6(1): 355-358.

Alobuia WM, Missikpode C, Aung M, Jolly PE. Knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding vector-borne diseases in Western Jamaica. Annals of global health. 2015; 81(5):654-663.




How to Cite

Taj, S. ., Rana, S. M. ., Hassan, A. ., Faridi, T. A. ., & John, A. . (2022). Community Perceptions Regarding Chikungunya Vector Proof Housing In Lahore, Pakistan for Sustainable Development. Pakistan BioMedical Journal, 5(2), 27–32.



Original Article

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 > >>