Diabetes Mellitus and its impact on Quality of life

Diabetes Mellitus and its impact on Quality of life


  • Shomaila Irim GC University Faisalabad
  • Khurram Munir Sheikh Zayed Medical College, Rahim yar Khan, Pakistan
  • Asma Hussain Independent Medical College Faisalabad
  • Saima Mir DHQ teaching Hospital Rawalpindi
  • Moazzma Ahmed Benazir Bhutto Hospital, Rawalpindi Medical University
  • Jais Kumar Karmani Islamabad Medical and Dental College
  • Amanullah Nazir Riphah International University Islamabad
  • Iqra Naz Ibadat International University Islamabad
  • Faisal Basheer Rehabilitation Department PPTA




Diabetes Mellitus, Patients, Insulin, Depression, Life Style


To narrate the characteristic of life of patients having type II Diabetes mellitus (DM2) & the factors influencing it. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) who were over the age of 18 were chosen. Age, gender, profession, matrimonial status, time of type two diabetes development, other diseases, depressive status were all evaluated as factors that affect quality of life (Beck Depression Inventory). A (HRQOL) scale was utilised to assess the quality of life by using the thirty-six-item short-form survey (SF-36). Based on their SF-36 patients were separated into three groups. Results: One thousand three hundred and ninty four sample had a middle phase of 62  years. An average score of 50.1 was assigned to the global HRQOL. According to bivariate analysis, phase, matrimonial status, gender, employment, comorbidities, DM2 duration, and other diseases all had an effect on HRQOL. In the regression model (logistic), age (OR 1.04) and depression (OR 4.4) were identified as independent factors that influenced overall quality of life. Conclusion: The HRQoL of DM2 patients is lower, which is associated to a higher risk of depression. The presence of depression and advanced age have a negative impact on the patient's HRQoL.


American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes-2016. Diabetes Care. 2016;39: S1–2. doi.org/10.2337/dci16-0003

Zhang M, Hu T, Zhang S, Zhou L. Associations of Different Adipose Tissue Depots with Insulin Resistance: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Observational Studies. Sci Rep. 2015 Dec 21; 5:18495. doi: 10.1038/srep18495.

Verma S, Hussain ME. Obesity and diabetes: an update. Diabetes Metab Syndr Clin Res Rev. 2017;11(1):73–79.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2016.06.017

Barquera S, Campos-Nonato I, Hernández-Barrera L, Pedroza AR-DJ. Prevalence of obesity in Mexican adults 2000–2012. Salud Publica Mex 2013;55(2): S151–60. doi.org/10.21149/spm. v55s2.5111

Córdova-Villalobos JA, Barriguete-Meléndez JA, Lara-Esqueda A, Barquera S, Rosas-Peralta M, Hernández-Avila M, et al. Chronic non-communicable diseases in Mexico: epidemiologic synopsis and integral prevention. Salud Publica Mex. 2008;50(5):419–27.doi.org/10.1590/S0036-36342008000500015

Juan López M. El análisis de la ENSANUT 2012 como contribución para las políticas públicas [The analysis of ENSANUT 2012 as a contribution for public policy]. Salud Publica Mex. 2013;55 Suppl 2: S79-80. doi.org/10.21149/spm. v55s2.5100

Rodríguez-Gutiérrez R, Montori VM. Glycemic control for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: our evolving faith in the face of evidence. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2016;9(5):504-12.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.116.002901

American Diabetes Association. Economic costs of diabetes in the U.S. in 2012. Diabetes Care. 2013 Apr;36(4):1033-46. doi: 10.2337/dc12-2625.

Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Study Group, Gerstein HC, Miller ME, Byington RP, Goff DC Jr, Bigger JT, Buse JB, et al. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jun 12;358(24):2545-59. doi: 0.1056/NEJMoa0802743.

Vaidya V, Gangan N, Sheehan J. Impact of cardiovascular complications among patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2015 Jun;15(3):487-97. doi: 10.1586/14737167.2015.1024661.

Ambriz Murillo Y, Menor Almagro R, Campos-Gonzalez ID, Cardiel MH. Health related quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, end stage renal disease and geriatric subjects. Experience from a general Hospital in Mexico. Reumatol Clin. 2015;11(2):68-72.doi.org/10.1016/j.reuma.2014.03.006

Gonzalez JS, Peyrot M, McCarl LA, Collins EM, Serpa L, Mimiaga MJ, et al. Depression and diabetes treatment nonadherence: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:2398-403.doi.org/10.2337/dc08-1341

Bech P. Quality of life in psychosomatic research. A psychometric model. Psychopathology. 1987;20(3-4):169-79. doi: 10.1159/000284496.

Ferrell BR, Dow KH, Grant M. Measurement of the quality of life in cancer survivors. Qual Life Res. 1995 Dec;4(6):523-31. doi: 10.1007/BF00634747.

Slevin M, Plant H, Lynch D, Drinkwater J, Gregory W. Who should measure quality of life, the doctor or the patient? Br J Cancer. 1988;41:243-50.

Altınok A, Marakoğlu KKN. Evaluation of quality of life and depression levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes. J Fam Med Prim Care. 2016;5(2):302-8.


Jannoo Z, Wah YB, Lazim AMHM. Examining diabetes distress, medication adherence, diabetes self-care activities, diabetes-specific quality of life and health-related quality of life among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. J Clin Transl Endocrinol. 2017;26(9):48-54.


Koekkoek PS, Biessels GJ, Kooistra M, Janssen J, Kappelle LJRGC-I. Study group. Undiagnosed cognitive impairment, health status and depressive symptoms in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Diabetes Complicat. 2015;29(8):1217-22.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2015.07.010

Zhang P, Lou P, Chang G, Chen P, Zhang L, Li T, et al. Combined effects of sleep quality and depression on quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes. BMC Fam Pract. 2016;17(1):40.doi.org/10.1186/s12875-016-0435-x

Lewko J, Zarzycki WK-KE. Relationship between the occurrence of symptoms of anxiety and depression, quality of life, and level of acceptance of illness in patients with type 2 diabetes. Saudi Med J. 2012;33(8):887-94.

American Diabetes Association. 2. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2015;38(Suppl 1):S8-16.doi.org/10.2337/dc15-S005

Vilagut G, Ferrer M, Rajmil L, Rebollo P, Permanyer-Miralda G, Quintana JM, et al. The Spanish version of the short form 36 health survey: a decade of experience and new developments. Gac Sanit. 2005;19(2):135-50.doi.org/10.1157/13074369

Martínez-Hernández LE, Segura-Méndez NH, Antonio-Ocampo A, Torres-Salazar AM-GE. Validation of the SF-36 questionnaire in adults with asthma and allergic rhinitis in Mexican population. Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc. 2010;48:531-4.

Vázquez CSJ. Fiabilidad, validez factorial y datos normativos del Inventario de Depresión de Beck. Psicothema. 1998;10(2):303-18.

Lahoud R, Chongthammakun V, Wu Y, Hawwa N, Brennan DMCL. Comparing SF-36® scores versus biomarkers to predict mortality in primary cardiac prevention patients. Eur J Intern Med. 2017;46:47-55.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2017.05.026

Kav S, Yilmaz AA, Bulut YDN. Self-efficacy, depression and self-care activities of people with type 2 diabetes in Turkey. Collegian. 2017;24(1):27-35.


Dos Santos MA, Ceretta LB, Reús GZ, Abelaira HM, Jornada LK, Scwalm MT, et al. Anxiety disorders are associated with quality of life impairment in patients with insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes: a case-control study. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2014;36(4):298-304.


Odili V, Ugboka L, Oparah A. Quality of life of people with diabetes in Benin City as measured with WHOQOL-BREF. Internet J Law Healthc Ethics. 2008;6(2):1-7.

Golicki D, Dudzinska M, Zwolak ATJ. Quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes in Poland - comparison with the general population using the EQ-5D questionnaire. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2015;24(1):139-46.doi.org/10.17219/acem/38137

Lee H-J, Chapa D, Kao CW, Jones D, Kapustin J, Smith J, et al. Depression, quality of life, and glycemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes. J Am Acad Nurse Pr. 2009;21:214-24.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-7599.2009.00396.x

Gönen S, Güngör K, Çili A, Kamis U, Akpinar Z, Kisakol G, et al. Comprehensive analysis of health related quality of life in patients with diabetes: a study from Konya, Turkey. Turkish J Endocrinol Metab. 2007;11:81-8.

Wermeling PR, Gorter KJ, Van Stel HFRG. Both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular comorbidity are related to health status in well-controlled type 2 diabetes patients: a cross-sectional analysis. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012;11:121.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2840-11-121

Shim YT, Lee JTM, et al. Health-related quality of life and glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Singapore. Diabet Med. 2012;29:e241-8.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03689.x

Bannier K, Lichtenauer M, Franz M, Fritzenwanger M, Kabisch B, Figulla HR, et al. Impact of diabetes mellitus and its complications: survival and quality-of-life in critically ill patients. J Diabetes Complications. 2015;29(8):1130-5.


Hasan SS, Thiruchelvam K, Ahmed SI, Clavarino AM, Mamun AA, Kairuz T. Psychological health and menopause-specific quality of life of Malaysian women with type 2 diabetes. Asian J Psychiatr. 2016;23:56-63.




DOI: 10.54393/pbmj.v5i5.404
Published: 2022-05-31

How to Cite

Irim , S. ., Munir , K. ., Hussain , A. ., Mir , S. ., Ahmed , M. ., Karmani , J. K. ., Nazir , A. ., Naz , I. ., & Basheer, F. (2022). Diabetes Mellitus and its impact on Quality of life: Diabetes Mellitus and its impact on Quality of life. Pakistan BioMedical Journal, 5(5), 205–210. https://doi.org/10.54393/pbmj.v5i5.404



Original Article


Most read articles by the same author(s)