Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis amongst patients attending the tertiary care hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan

Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis amongst Patients


  • Farzeen Khan Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry, Peshawar Dental College, Peshawar
  • Zia ul Ain Sabiha Department of Community Medicine, Peshawar Medical College, Peshawar
  • Amina Ajmal Department of Community Dentistry, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar
  • Miss Shawana Department of Dental Materials, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar
  • Abdul Ahad Khurshid Department of Oral Biology, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar
  • Junaid Ahmed Department of Dental Materials, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar



dental fluorosis, fluoride, Dean’s fluorosis index, Peshawar


Pakistan is a developing country where peoples drink any available water. In Pakistan water sources are limited and drinking water contains high level of fluoride, which causes both dental and skeletal fluorosis. Objectives: Objectives of the current study was to evaluate the incidence of dental fluorosis among patients who visits the tertiary care hospital, Peshawar and to assess the level and distribution of fluorosis. Methods: The study was carried out at Dental unit of Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar, from January 2021 to December 2021. All the samples were collected after the research was approved by the ethical committee. A written informed consent was taken from all the participants prior to collecting the data. Moreover, Dean’s Fluorosis Index was used to rank the extent of Dental Fluorosis. For statistical analysis SPSS, version 26 was used. Results: Among 2433 participants, females 1451/2433(59.6%) were more as compared    to male (n=982/2433 (39.3%) while the dental fluorosis were more prevalent in males 414/982 (42.1%) as compared to females 568/1451 (39.1%) The fluorosis was more prevalent in age group 11-20 year 874 (89%) while only two individuals were found with dental fluorosis in  age groups more than 40 years. In addition, the participants used tap water were more affected with dental fluorosis 568 (56.9%), whilst incidence of fluorosis was less in individuals drinking treated as well as other sources water 2 (1.2%). Furthermore, 620 (63%) individuals were found with local fluorosis, while 362 (37%) were found with generalize fluorosis. According to Dean’s Fluorosis Index 365 (15%) of individuals were found with very mild fluorosis while only 37 (1.5%) individuals were affected by severe type of fluorosis. Conclusion: In this study, the fluorosis incidence in Pakistan were prevalent and need continual monitoring, and sources contributing to total fluoride intake in Pakistan need further investigation. Furthermore, for fluorosis prevention education and community awareness are necessary, and prompt conciliation to relegate the effects on dental health.


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How to Cite

Khan, F., Sabiha, Z. ul A. ., Ajmal, A. ., Shawana, M., Khurshid, A. A. ., & Ahmed, J. . (2022). Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis amongst patients attending the tertiary care hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan: Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis amongst Patients . Pakistan BioMedical Journal, 5(3), 55–59.



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