Seasonal Variations in Ostracod Community Structure and Physicochemical Parameters in Khanki Headworks, Pakistan

Seasonal Variations in Ostracod Community


  • Muhammad Ahsan Raza Department of Zoology, Government Graduate College (B), Gujranwala, Pakistan/Institute of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Nabila Roohi Institute of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Husna Ahmad Institute of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan



Ostracods, Microcrustaceans, Heterocypris incongruence, Dolerocypris sinensis, Canonical Correspondence Analysis


Protozoans, rotifers, ostracods and copepods are principal groups of zooplanktons. These organisms are crucial biotic elements, and impact all functional features of aquatic ecosystems. Objective: To assess the impacts of environmental variables on the abundance, biodiversity and seasonal distribution of ostracods in Khanki Headworks, Pakistan. To evaluate the contribution of ostracods as bio-monitors of contamination in freshwater ecosystems. Methods: Month wise separate water samples were taken for different environmental variables from four sampling sites (each with 3 sub-sites), for study period of one year (February 2021 to January 2022), whereas, samples of microcrustaceans (ostracods) were collected with planktonic net (mesh size: 37µm). Results: In total, 5 species of ostracods, associated to 4 genera and 2 families were identified from February 2021 to January 2022. Heterocypris incongruence was the most abundant species, whereas, Dolerocypris sinensis was noted as least abundant species. Ostracods abundance and biodiversity were monitored highest in June and minimum in the month of January. Results of Pearson correlation showed that physicochemical parameters, electrical conductivity (EC), temperature, turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS) and pH have positive effects on the density and diversity of ostracods. In contrast, dissolved oxygen (DO) showed negative relationship with the abundance and diversity of planktonic ostracods. These findings were further validated by Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Conclusions: This investigation revealed that physicochemical parameters generally govern the population dynamics of ostracods.


Altınsaçlı S, Perçin-Paçal F, Altınsaçlı S. Diversity, spatiotemporal distribution, abundance, species composition and habitat preferences of Ostracoda in Akbük and Akdeniz coastal mesosaline lagoons (Muğla, the South Aegean Region, Turkey). Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies. 2015 Jun; 44 (2): 206-22. doi: 10.1515/ohs-2015-0020. DOI:

Külköylüoğlu O, Çelikbaş B, Ataman A. Habitat destruction in wetland affects Ostracoda (Crustacea) species occurrence patterns amid different aquatic habitats. Aquatic Ecology. 2022 Sep; 56 (3): 605-18. doi: 10.1007/s10452-021-09934-6. DOI:

Meisch C, Smith RJ, Martens K. A subjective global checklist of the extant non-marine Ostracoda (Crustacea). European journal of taxonomy. 2019; 492: 1-35. doi: 10.5852/ejt.2019.492.

Altınsaçlı S, Altınsaçlı S, Paçal FP. Species composition and distribution of ostracods (Crustacea, Ostracoda) in some lakes and lagoons (Kocaeli and Sakarya, Turkey). Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 2014; 2 (5): 182-92.

Perçin-Paçal F, Altinsaçli S, Altinsaçli S. Distribution, diversity and some ecological characteristics of ostracods (Crustacea: Ostracoda) in Gökceada (Imbros) island (northern Aegean Sea, Turkey). Biologia. 2017 Jul; 72: 774-89. doi: 10.1515/biolog-2017-0088. DOI:

Batmaz F, Külköylüoğlu O, Akdemir D, Yavuzatmaca M. Effective roles of ecological factors on nonmarine Ostracoda (Crustacea) in shallow waters of Malatya (Turkey). Ecological Research. 2020 May; 35 (3): 511-23. doi: 10.1111/1440-1703.12120. DOI:

Rodriguez-Lazaro J and Ruiz-Muñoz F. A general introduction to ostracods: morphology, distribution, fossil record and applications. Developments in Quaternary Sciences. 2012 Jan; 17: 1-14. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-53636-5.00001-9. DOI:

Yavuzatmaca M. Species assemblages of Ostracoda (Crustacea) from west-site of Turkey: their indicator potential for lotic and lentic habitats. Biologia. 2020 Dec; 75 (12): 2301-14. doi: 10.2478/s11756-020-00494-y. DOI:

Akdemir D, Külköylüoğlu O, Yavuzatmaca M, Sarı N. Freshwater ostracods (Crustacea) of Gaziantep (Turkey) and their habitat preferences according to movement ability. Fundamental and Applied Limnology. 2016 Mar; 187 (4): 307-14. doi: 10.1127/fal/2016/0665. DOI:

Meisch C. Freshwater Ostracoda of western and central Europe (Sußwasserfauna von Mitteleuropa). Volume 8/3. Spektrum; 2000.

Rossetti G, Bartoli M, Martens K. Limnological characteristics and recent ostracods (Crustacea, Ostracoda) of freshwater wetlands in the Parco Oglio Sud (Northern Italy). Annales de Limnologie-International Journal of Limnology. 2004 Dec; 40(4): 329-41. doi: 10.1051/limn/2004030. DOI:

Szlauer-Łukaszewska A, Pešić V, Zawal A. Environmental factors shaping assemblages of ostracods (Crustacea: Ostracoda) in springs situated in the River Krąpiel valley (NW Poland). Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems. 2021; (422): 14. doi: 10.1051/kmae/2021010. DOI:

Altinsaçli S, Paçal FP, Altinsaçli S. Assessments of environmental variables affecting the spatiotemporal distribution and habitat preferences of living Ostracoda (Crustacea) species in the Enez Lagoon Complex (Enez-Evros Delta, Turkey). Ecologica Montenegrina. 2018 Dec; 19: 130-51. doi: 10.37828/em.2018.19.14. DOI:

Perez L, Lorenschat J, Bugja R, Brenner M, Scharf B, Schwalb A. Distribution, diversity and ecology of modern freshwater ostracodes (Crustacea), and hydrochemical characteristics of Lago Petén Itzá, Guatemala. Journal of Limnology. 2010 Feb; 69 (1): 146. doi: 10.4081/jlimnol.2010.146. DOI:

Uçak S, Külköylüoğlu O, Akdemir D, Başak E. Distribution, diversity and ecological characteristics of freshwater Ostracoda (Crustacea) in shallow aquatic bodies of the Ankara region, Turkey. Wetlands. 2014 Apr; 34: 309-24. doi: 10.1007/s13157-013-0499-5. DOI:

Altaf M, Javid A, Khan AM, Hussain A, Umair M, Ali Z. The status of fish diversity of river Chenab, Pakistan. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences. 2015 Jan; 25 (3): 564-9.

Latif B, Pervaiz K, Minhas IB, Latif S. Current status of fish fauna flathead Khanki, river Chenab, Pakistan. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences. 2016; 9: 279-85.

Ejaz MU, Sulehria AQ, Maqbool AS, Hussain AL, Yousaf M. Density and diversity of planktonic rotifers in Nandipur Canal. Biologia (Pakistan). 2016; 62 (1): 9-18.

Maqbool AS, Sulehria AQ, Ejaz MU, Hussain AL. Density, diversity and abundance of copepods in a pond. Biologia. 2014; 60 (1): 57-62.

American Public Health Association. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Volue 2005. American Public Health Association; 2005.

Maqbool A, Sulehria AQ, Ejaz M, Hussain A. Study on Pelagic Copepods from Pipnakha Village, District Gujranwala, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology. 2015 Oct; 47 (5).

Tahir SM, Otchoum BB, Ibrahim MA, Siméon T, Achuo ED, Hubert ZT. Spatio-temporal dynamics of zooplankton communities (Rotifers, Cladocerans, Copepods) and water quality of Lake Léré (TCHAD). International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology. 2020 Jul; 5 (3). doi: 10.22161/ijeab.53.33. DOI:

Pennak RW. Fresh-water invertebrates of the United States. Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Stress and Recovery (Formerly Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Health). 1955 Jun; 7 (1): 126. doi: 10.1007/BF00189804. DOI:

Yunfang HM. The freshwater biota in China. Yantai University Fishery Collage. 1995; 375.

Meisch C, Smith RJ, Martens K. A subjective global checklist of the extant non-marine Ostracoda (Crustacea). European Journal of Taxonomy. 2019; 492: 1-35. doi: 10.5852/ejt.2019.492. DOI:

Smith RJ and Kamiya T. The first record of an entocytherid ostracod (Crustacea: Cytheroidea) from Japan. Benthos Research. 2001 Dec; 56 (2): 57-61. doi: 10.5179/benthos1996.56.2_57. DOI:

Karanovic I. Recent freshwater ostracods of the world: Crustacea, Ostracoda, Podocopida. Springer Science and Business Media; 2012. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-21810-1. DOI:

Külköylüoğlu O, Akdemir D, Yavuzatmaca M, Yilmaz O. A checklist of recent non-marine Ostracoda (Crustacea) of Turkey with three new records. Review of Hydrobiology. 2015 Dec; 8 (2).

Bledzki LA, Rybak JI, Błędzki LA, Rybak JI. Morphological Abbreviations. Freshwater Crustacean Zooplankton of Europe: Cladocera and Copepoda (Calanoida, Cyclopoida) Key to species identification, with notes on ecology, distribution, methods and introduction to data analysis. 2016. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-29871-9. DOI:

Akdemir D, Külköylüoğlu O, Yavuzatmaca M, Tanyeri M, Gürer M, Alper A, et al. Ecological characteristics and habitat preferences of ostracoda (crustacea) wıth a new bisexual population record (Muğla, Turkey). Applied Ecology and Environmental Research. 2020. doi: 10.15666/aeer/1801_14711487. DOI:

Weaver W. The mathematical theory of communication. University of Illinois Press; 1963.

Simpson EH. Measurement of diversity. Nature. 1949 Apr; 163 (4148): 688. doi: 10.1038/163688a0. DOI:

Margalef R. Perspectives in ecological theory. 1968. doi: 10.2307/3543237. DOI:

Pielou EC. The measurement of diversity in different types of biological collections. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 1966 Dec; 13: 131-44. doi: 10.1016/0022-5193(66)90013-0. DOI:

Fryer G. The horse-trough ostracod Heterocypris incongruens. Naturalist. 1997;122 (121): e136.

Güher H and Öterler B. The diversity, abundance and seasonal distribution of planktonic microcrustacean (Copepoda, Cladocera) in Kayalıköy Reservoir (Kırklareli/Turkey). Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 2021 Mar; 38 (1): 21-9. doi: 10.12714/egejfas.38.1.03. DOI:

Baskar K, Sridhar SG, Sivakumar T, Hussain SM, Maniyarasan S. Temporal variation of physico-chemical parameters and ostracoda population, off Rameswaram, Gulf of Mannar, southeast coast of Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of the Geological Society of India. 2015 Dec; 86: 663-70. doi: 10.1007/s12594-015-0358-5. DOI:

Ltaief TB, Drira Z, Hannachi I, Hassen MB, Hamza A, Pagano M, et al. What are the factors leading to the success of small planktonic copepods in the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia? Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 2015 Jun; 95 (4): 747-61. doi: 10.1017/S0025315414001507. DOI:

Külköylüoğlu O, Yavuzatmaca M, Yilmaz O. Ecology and distribution of ostracods in Mardin and Muş provinces in Turkey. Biologia. 2020 Nov; 75: 1855-70. doi: 10.2478/s11756-020-00439-5. DOI:

Dhanasekaran M, Bhavan PS, Manickam N, Kalpana R. Physico-chemical characteristics and zooplankton diversity in a perennial lake at Dharmapuri (Tamil Nadu, India). Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 2017; 5 (1): 285-92.

Dastgeer G, Hussain M, Aftab K, Tufail MS, Malik MF, Umar M, et al. Seasonal distribution of rotifer diversity in selected fish ponds and Marala Headworks Sialkot, Pakistan. JAPS: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences. 2020 Oct; 30 (5). doi: 10.36899/JAPS.2020.5.0148. DOI:

Hussain AL, Sulehria AQ, Ejaz MU, Maqbool AS. Monthly variations in physicochemical parameters of a flood plain reservoir on River Ravi near Balloki Headworks (Pakistan). Biologia. 2013; 59: 371-7.

Kaya M and Altindağ A. Zooplankton fauna and seasonal changes of Gelingüllü dam lake (Yozgat, Turkey). Turkish Journal of Zoology. 2007; 31(4): 347-51.

Kaviyarasan M, Santhanam P, Balakrishnan S, Kumar SD, Ananth S, Kandan S. Seasonal variations in copepods diversity along the Vettar coastal waters, South Eastern India. Environment and Ecology. 2019 Apr; 37 (2): 471-80.

Ahmad U, Parveen S, Khan AA, Kabir HA, Mola HR, Ganai AH. Zooplankton population in relation to physico-chemical factors of a sewage fed pond of Aligarh (UP), India. Biology and Medicine. 2011; 3 (2): 336-41.

Yavuzatmaca M, Külköylüoğlu O, Yılmaz O. Distributional patterns of non-marine Ostracoda (Crustacea) in Adiyaman province (Turkey). Annales de Limnologie-International Journal of Limnology. 2015; 51(2): 101-13. doi: 10.1051/limn/2015005. DOI:

Hussain A, Sulehria AQ, Ejaz M, Maqbool A. Population dynamics of rotifers in the floodplain of River Ravi, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology. 2016 Feb; 48 (1).

Onyedineke NE, Nwigwe IC, Emeronye RU. Physical and Chemical Hydrology of Abadaba Lake, Imo State, Nigeria. Advances in Science and Technology. 2009; 3: 183-93.

Neelgund HD and Kadadevaru GG. A Study on Seasonal Variation in Zooplankton Abundance in Kadasgatti Minor Irrigation Tank of Bailhongal Taluk, Belagavi District, Karnataka State, India. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2021 Jul; 14 (27): 2238-49. doi: 10.17485/IJST/v14i27.323. DOI:



DOI: 10.54393/pbmj.v6i12.993
Published: 2023-12-31

How to Cite

Raza, M. A., Roohi , N., & Ahmad, H. (2023). Seasonal Variations in Ostracod Community Structure and Physicochemical Parameters in Khanki Headworks, Pakistan: Seasonal Variations in Ostracod Community. Pakistan BioMedical Journal, 6(12), 47–53.



Original Article