Co-morbidities as Determinant of Heart Failure: A Hospital Based Matched Case-Control Study

Determinant of Heart Failure: A Hospital Based Matched


  • Muhammad Saad Shafiq Ibadat International University, Islamabad
  • Farooq Islam University of Lahore, Gujrat Campus, Gujrat, Pakistan
  • Amina Maryam Tahir Surgical Hospital, Lalamusa
  • Jamila Ghafoor Rehman Physiotherapy Clinic
  • Abeera Akram Usama Clinic, Lalamusa



Comorbidities, Heart failure, Anemia, Diabetes, Sleep apnea, Hepatitis C, Rheumatoid arthritis, Gout, Hypercholesterolemia


To evaluate the one most common combination of co-morbidities that can lead to heart failure.Methods:Total374 participants (case=187 & control=187 with 1:1) of age ≥20 included in this case control study through non probability convenient sampling from hospitals of Tehsil Wazirabad and District Gujrat.187 participants having heart failure were included in case group and 187 nothaving heart failure  included in control group. Asemi structure questionnaire was used to collect data and results were compiled through SPSS software. There was no gender specification in this study.Results: Results showed thatFrequency of single disease was 55 in case group and 88 in control group. Participants having >1 disease were 51 in cases and 55 in control. Frequency of >2 diseases was 44 and 41 in case and control group respectively and in >3diseases 17 participants were in case group and 2 were in control group.As number of diseases increases in combination, frequency of participants increased in case group as compared to control group.This study was significant with P value less than 0.05 and odds ratio of combination of comorbidities was 1.213.Conclusion:Theobserved association indicated that combined effect of comorbidities is higher in case group to cause heart failure than one disease at a time.frequency becomes higher in case group as the number of diseases increases in combination such asSleep apnea, DM, Anemia and COPD (combination of four diseases) and Hypercholesterolemia, RA, DM, COPD and HCV(combination of five diseases) were more in case group than in control group. Hence we concluded that combined effect of comorbidities is higher in case group to cause heart failure than one disease at a time.



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DOI: 10.54393/pbmj.v5i1.172
Published: 2022-01-31

How to Cite

Shafiq, M. S. ., Islam, F., Maryam, A., Ghafoor, J., & Akram, A. (2022). Co-morbidities as Determinant of Heart Failure: A Hospital Based Matched Case-Control Study: Determinant of Heart Failure: A Hospital Based Matched. Pakistan BioMedical Journal, 5(1), 64–68.



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