Comparison of Dry eye in pre and post menopause

Comparison of Dry eye in pre- and post-menopause


  • Kashuf shakoor Vision eye hospital, Mirpur, Kashmir
  • Hira Anwar Department of Optometry and Vision sciences, The university of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Ayesha Arshad Mother and Child International Hospital



Dry eye, Premenopausal, Postmenopausal, Schirmer test


The aspire of the study was to perceive the frequency of dry eyes in pre and post menopause. Methods: Women of age 45 to 70 were involved. Schirmer test was performed, the normal production level was considered over 10mm.The level under 10mm was categorized as moderate and <5mm was severe. It was a comparative cross-sectional study that was performed between January 2010 and May 2016.The study was performed at University of Lahore Teaching Hospital. The study included a total 326 female patients comprised of 126 premenopausal and 126 postmenopausal. The women aged between 40 to 70 years were agreed to participate .There is a questionnaire containing the questions about status of menopause i.e pre and post and symptoms of dry eyes were used. Schirmer test 2 was performed and dry eye was evaluated on the basis of scoring of dry eyes symptoms. Schirmer test with anesthesia was performed. In this study alkane drops were used and the whole procedure was well explained to the patient before performing. Schirmer test readings were noted in questionnaire as OD and OS and the symptoms of dry eyes like itching, watering, redness, burning sensation were noted as yes and no. Schirmer test strips were used with reading from 0 to 35mm.Patients with corneal disease or ulcer or having any such disease that can disturb the tear film and cause dry eye was excluded. Moreover the pregnant women, smokers, diabetic, thyroid disorders or patients with systemic disease were not included in the study. It is performed in such a way that the in a confined room the patient was seated comfortably with fan off. Alkane drops were applied to the eye. The test was performed on both eyes at the same time and standardized schirmer strips were inserted into conjunctival sac of lateral part of lower eyelid. The strips were removed after 5 minutes .We kept the standard that was:

Abnormal if <10mm/5min

Moderate if 10-15mm/5min

Normal if >5mm/5min


In our study 87.8% among premenopausal were mild,11.6% moderate and 0.6% severe. Among postmenopausal 7.4% were mild,43.8%moderate and 48.8% severe. It was discovered that out of 164 premenopausal women 71.3% were facing watering and out of 162 postmenopausal women, 46.9% were facing watering. Among 164 premenopausal 72.6% were having eye redness and out of 162 postmenopausal 46.9%. Among 164 premenopausal 15.9% were facing difficulty in wearing contact lens and among postmenopausal were 48.1%.Prevelance of participants  facing difficulty in night time driving among 164 premenopausal women was 10.4% and among postmenopausal was 33.3%.Among 164 premenopausal women 70.1% had dryness in areas like mouth, nose and vagina and among postmenopausal 92.0%. Hot flashes among 164 premenopausal women was 73.8% and among postmenopausal women 82.1%.Among 164 premenopausal women 97.6% were facing mood swings and among 162 postmenopausal women was 96.3%. The participants suffering from sleeplessness among premenopausal women was 81.1% and among postmenopausal women was 92.0%. Conclusion: It was discovered that the dry eye is more customary in postmenopausal women. The Schirmer test showed that dry eye is more prevalent in postmenopausal women.


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DOI: 10.54393/pbmj.v5i1.314
Published: 2022-01-31

How to Cite

shakoor, K. ., Anwar, H. ., & Arshad, A. . (2022). Comparison of Dry eye in pre and post menopause: Comparison of Dry eye in pre- and post-menopause. Pakistan BioMedical Journal, 5(1), 318–321.



Original Article