A cross-sectional study to assess the frequency and determinants of cesarean section in three cities of Punjab.


  • Tehreem Ashfaq Madinah Teaching Hospital, Faisalabd, Pakistan
  • khuram Ashfaq Lahore college of Pharmacy, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Anees-ur- Rehman Ruthpfau College of nutritional sciences, Lahore Medical and dental College, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Nasir Ali Lahore college of Pharmacy, Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Tariq Department of Pharmacology, Lahore Pharmacy College, Lahore, Pakistan





Objective: The increasing frequency of cesarean section (CS) is a major public health issue, and it is on the rise in Pakistan. The study aimed to investigate the frequency of caesarean section and assess the determinants of increasing frequency in three cities of Punjab.

Study design:  A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in tertiary hospitals of Faisalabad, Chichawatni and Multan. Period: January 2020 to August 2020.

Material and Methods: Data collection was done by using a self-developed study questionnaire. Results: The study's findings showed that at the time of first delivery, 52% of participants were at the age of 21 to 25 years. About 33% of participants had C-sections due to complications, while 14% preferred C-section without any complication to normal delivery. Relatively lower rates were found among less educated, poor families and in rural areas. A higher rate was observed in well-educated women, women from rich families and the urban regions. The majority of females are found to be totally dependent on their decision of C-section on their gynaecologist.

Conclusion: Overall increasing trend of C- section in selected cities has been observed. Data of the study suggests the need for proper awareness to couples about preoperative and postoperative cares. This will help to reduce both infant mortality rates and maternal mortality rates in Punjab.

Key Words:  Frequency of C-section: Pregnancy complications: C-section: Gestational diabetes


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DOI: 10.54393/pbmj.v5i1.299
Published: 2022-01-31

How to Cite

Ashfaq, T. ., Ashfaq, khuram ., Rehman, M. A.- ur-., Ali, N. ., & Tariq, M. . (2022). A cross-sectional study to assess the frequency and determinants of cesarean section in three cities of Punjab. Pakistan BioMedical Journal, 5(1), 300–303. https://doi.org/10.54393/pbmj.v5i1.299



Original Article


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